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The territory of Mexico was occupied since the ancient times. It is still not clear who were the first inhabitants here. Historical researches come across a lot of obstacles – Indians didn’t leave enough evidence of their ancestors because the Spanish colonizers destroyed that little that had been left from the ancient civilizations.

For thousands of years, what is now known as Mexico was a land of hunter gatherers. Around 9,000 years ago, ancient Amerindians domesticated corn and initiated an agricultural revolution that led to the formation of many complex civilizations. Those civilizations revolved around cities with writing, monumental architecture, astronomical studies, mathematics, and militaries. After 4,000 years, those civilizations were destroyed upon the arrival of the Spaniards in 1519. For three centuries, Mexico was colonized by Spain, during which time the majority of its indigenous population died off. Formal independence from Spain was recognized in 1821. A war with the United States ended with Mexico losing almost half of its territory in 1848. France then invaded Mexico in 1861 and ruled briefly until 1867. The Mexican Revolution would later result in the death of 10% of the nation's population. Since then, Mexico as a nation-state has struggled with reconciling its deeply-entrenched indigenous heritage with the demands of the modern Western cultural model imposed in 1519. The nation's name is derived from the Aztec's capital called Mexico-Tenochtitlan.

Оlmecs – one of the first ancient culture in Mexico. Their language is unknown to scientists. All they left us are huge stone heads. But the findings make it possible to think that Olmecs were organized well enough to be engaged in business and have a social hierarchy headed by the Supreme priest. The main achievements of Olmecs are a calendar, hieroglyphic writing and a pantheon of gods with Jaguar God.

By 300 BC village life  was settled based on agriculture and hunting, it developed throughout the southern half of Mexico. Many carvings in Monte Alban, the center of Zapotecs of Oaxaca, have hieroglyphs or dates in a dot –a –bar system, which means that the elite of Monte Alban invented writing and a written calendar in Mexico.

Between 1800 and 300 BC, complex cultures began to form. Many of them matured into advanced pre-Columbian Mesoamerican civilizations such as the: Olmec, Izapa, Teotihuacan, Maya, Zapotec, Mixtec, Huastec, "Toltec" and Aztec, which flourished for nearly 4,000 years before the first contact with Europeans.

These civilizations are credited with many inventions and advancements including pyramid-temples, mathematics, astronomy, medicine, and theology.

While many city-states, kingdoms, and empires competed with one another for power and prestige, Mexico can be said to have had five major civilizations: The Olmec, Teotihuacan, the Toltec, the Aztec and the Maya. These civilizations (with the exception of the politically-fragmented Maya) extended their reach across Mexico, and beyond, like no others. They consolidated power and distributed influence in matters of trade, art, politics, technology, and theology. Other regional power players made economic and political alliances with these five civilizations over the span of 3,000 years. Many made war with them. But almost all found themselves within these five spheres of influence.

The civilization of Maya is recognized as the most advanced. Maya have brought to perfection an Olmecs’ calendar, have deep comprehension of architecture and lifted to unprecedented heights building of pyramids. The hieroglyphic letter (700 signs), and also introduction in the mathematics the  concept of a zero were  the highest  intellectual achievement of  Maya culture .Maya had the most exact calendar in the world and  were able to foresee a solar eclipse and calculated a trajectory of movement of Venus.

The following stage of pre Hispanic Mexico is connected with Aztecs. In first half of 14 th century they have constructed the city of Tenochtitlan, present Mexico City. The Aztecan society has been accurately organized and structured. Formally, the Aztecs world had four main gods according to four cardinal point and direction of the world. Each of them had also its color.

In 1519 – 1521 Tenochtitlan was total ruined by the Spanish conquistadors and the world of Aztecs has been destroyed by "civilized" Europeans: the city of Tenochtitlan have been plundered and renamed into Mexico City. In 17th century in Mexico reined the Inquisition.

Clearing of Mexico of the Spanish domination passed in three stages. The first one was as on September, 16th, 1810 modest priest Miguel Hidalgo has made ardent speech for independence of Mexico. This idea was accepted and greeted by the poverty people and by the elite population. But revolt has held less than a year. Hidalgo was arrested and executed in 1811.

The second attempt of separation from Spain has been undertaken in 1815 by other priest, Jose Maria Morelos. All has ended with the same result – execution of the leader.

In 1821 on revolutionary stage in Mexico came out the elite leaded by general Iturbide and Spain Kingdom had to agree with the Mexican independence. This time all was competent and serious.


In 1824 Mexico was proclaimed as a Republic and the Constitution was accepted.
Between 1825 and 1876 there were civil wars and invasions in Mexico. As a result of war with  the USA (1846-1848) Mexico losed northern part of California, Arizona and New Mexico, i.e. almost half of territory.


In 1847 there was Maya revolt on peninsula Yucatan, against ruling landlords.” Guerra de Castas” has ended only in 1902.


In 1858 – 1861 there was a war between liberals and conservatives. Selected president Juarez was compelled to leave his post.


In 1862 – 1867 “the Mexican Expedition”: the armed intervention of France, Great Britain, Spain to Mexico, for the purpose of its transformation into a colony of the European powers.


In 1877 –1911, long presidential period of Porfirio Diaz. The dictator tried to transform Mexico into the modern country, encouraged large industrialists and landowners, import of the foreign capital begins. But the great bulk of the population feels severe need.


In 1910 – 1920 after Diaz was remove from power, constitutionalists began the bloody fight for power the demanding earths and freedom.


In 1917 the New Constitution is accepted.


In 1926 – 1929 President Calesa’ s  reform laws call revolt of militant Catholics.


In 1934 Lasaro Cardenas becomes the President. From this year on the term of duty of the President and the government is 6 years.


In 1942 Mexico declared  war to Nazi  Germany, Italy and Japan. Mexico accepts German emigrants.


In 1973 – 1988 Mexico becomes oil power.


In 1988- 1993 The President Carlos Salinas term is remarkable by successful economic policy.


In 1994, the revolt of Zapatistas. The agreement on free trade between Mexico, the USA and Canada is signed. Ernesto Sedillo becomes the president.


In 2000  Vicente Fox becomes  the selected  president and the Agreement on trade with Europe was signed.
Mexico has entered the XXI-st century in qualitatively new political situation. The present President is supported, first of all, by the well educated part of the population, city youth and business.


In 2004 Vladimir Putin visited Mexico; it was the first visit of the chairman of the Russian Federation in the history.


In 2006 Felipe Calderon became the elected President of Mexico; he was the Minister of Energy in the government of Vicente Fox.





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